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John Howland Cochrane explains the American Bureaucracy

John Howland Cochrane was born 26 November 1957, an economist specializing in business, economics, and economics; QAR assets administration Distinguished academic of economics at the University of Chicago Both schools of Business, served as vice-president of the American Finance Association in 2008 and was elected the president for the 2010 term

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The Crucible Responsive Essay

The phenomenon of false memory occurs when a person is convinced by others that they committed an act that they did not in fact commit. In The Crucible, innocent people are convicted of witchcraft, the accusations leading in some cases to false memories of the accused. Creating false memories for others is harmful to both the innocent person and the complainant.

First, assigning false blame is detrimental for the innocent. An example of this can be found in The Crucible when Tituba is accused of witchcraft. First, she denies the accusations, but after she is threatened with being hanged, she concedes: “Tituba, terrified, falls to her knees: ‘No, no, don’t hang Tituba! I tell him I don’t desire to work for him, sir.’” (Miller 44) Since the Salem Witch Trials were an actual occurrence, research has been done. The research shows that often, the accused were questioned in a way that would convince them that they were guilty. In modern day, this technique is used in police questioning. A study done by Psychological Science proves that “innocent adult participants can be convinced, over the course of a few hours, that they had perpetrated crimes as serious as assault with a weapon in their teenage years.” (“People Can Be Convinced”) Admission of guilt can be and is used in court as weighty evidence. Once a person admits guilt, there is usually no turning back. In the Witch Trials, admission could lead to being hanged, or in the best circumstances, alienation for the rest of one’s life. In the 21st century, admission of guilt usually leads to jail time or other penalties. When a person is deserving of negative consequences, then this system is doing its job. However, many innocent people are sent to jail now just as many innocent people were hanged in 1692. As seen in Tituba’s story, extreme cases of false memories can lead to insanity. When a person is convinced of something false, it can lead to insanity and self-condemnation.

Furthermore, it can be seen that creating false memories is harmful to the complainant as well. Abigail Williams did not only ruin others’ lives with her allegations, she also ruined her own. Parris tells Danforth of Abigail’s escape: “‘Excellency, I think [Abigail and Mercy Lewis] be aboard a ship.’” (Miller 126) It is later revealed that “Abigail turned up later as a prostitute in Boston.” (Miller 146) In order to cause false memories, one needs a motive. The motive of a 21st century police officer could be anything from wanting to hide a crime they committed to wanting the subject to forget something that happened to them. Abigail’s motive was her love for John Proctor. Abigail failed to think through the fact that going power-crazy could discredit her allegations, especially those against virtuous citizens such as Elizabeth Proctor, John Proctor,or Rebecca Nurse. So, when Abigail realized she was being found out after sending tens of people to their deaths, she ran away, terrified of the consequences. Through her false allegations, she has only hurt herself more.

To summarize the ideas of this essay, creating false memories is harmful to everyone involved in them.

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